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APA Reference List: Audiovisual and Images (Template + Examples)

What are APA style reference list rules for audiovisual material and other visual media? The references below use the APA Publication Manual 7 (released on October 2019). Learn how to properly cite a source or reference in APA style format in this full APA format citation guide. Read the other guides to learn how to cite other source types according to research papers, professional papers, scholarly journal’s, and student essays.

Understanding an APA reference list with audiovisual material: what is APA style?

APA is a writing format for academic documents. These documents typically include scholarly journals, books, student essays, and other educational material. For example, in the field of behavioral and social sciences (including sociology, education, health science, criminal justice, and psychology) APA style is used as a standard format for research.

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. The APA became involved in journal publishing in 1923. And in 1929, an APA committee had created a seven-page writer’s guide published in the Psychological Bulletin. Editions of the APA manual have since evolved. With major releases in 1974, 1983, 1994, 2001, 2009, and 2019. Each with their edition titles.

For example, the 2019 edition is referred to as “APA 6” style. Revisions of the APA style guide tend to follow developments of the English language and linguistics as a whole.

APA Style 7th Edition font suggestions

APA Publication Manual 7 requires that chosen fonts be accessible to readers and consistent throughout essays and research papers. The APA Manual does not specify a certain typeface or font for papers. They do recommend the following typefaces with their point sizes as follows:

FontPoint size
Lucida Sans Unicode10-point
Times New Roman12-point
Computer Modern10-point
APA Style font recommendations

What are the APA reference list rules for audiovisual (film, video, tv series, or music)

“Audiovisual” is a term that relates to both audio and visual components. Here is the way to cite these sources according to the APA Manual 7th Edition.

RuleFormat + Template
A film or videoDirector, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company.
Foreign film or videoDirector, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in original language [Translated title] [Film]. Production company.
TV SeriesExecutive Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Date range of release). Title of series [TV series]. Production company(s).
TV Series – Episode specificWriter, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Original air date). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [Tv series episode]. In P. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company(s). 
YouTube VideoPerson or group who uploaded video. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. Website host. URL 
Music AlbumRecording artist. (Year of release). Title of album [Album]. Record label.
Single Song or TrackRecording artist. (Year of release). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album [Album]. Record label. 
PodcastExecutive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Range of publication). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Production company. URL
Single Podcast EpisodeExecutive Producer, E. P. (Executive Producer). (Date of publication). Title of podcast episode (Episode number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production company. URL
Artwork in a MuseumArtist, A. (Year of release). Title of artwork [medium]. Name of museum, City, State, Country. URL of museum
PhotographPhotographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Source. URL

Do I need to include the publisher’s location in an APA book citation?

In the 7th Edition of the APA manual, no location information is required for publishers.

APA 7th Edition Formatting and Style Guides:

Here are more resources on APA style:


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About the author

Dalia Y.: Dalia is an English Major and linguistics expert with an additional degree in Psychology. Dalia has featured articles on Forbes, Inc, Fast Company, Grammarly, and many more. She covers English, ESL, and all things grammar on GrammarBrain.

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